Vesicular stomatitis virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES
SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT
NAME: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)
SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Vesiculovirus(1,2), vesicular stomatitis(1,2,3,4,5), VS(1,2,3,4,5,6), vesicular stomatitis virus disease(3,7), vesicular stomatitis fever, and Indiana fever(3).
CHARACTERISTICS: A member of the Vesiculovirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae(3,6). VSV is a bullet-shaped, enveloped virus, approximately 70 nm in diameter and 170 nm in length(3), and has a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome(5,8). VSV has two main serotypes: VSV serotype Indiana (with its subtypes Cocal virus and Alagoas virus), and VSV serotype New Jersey(1,2,3,5,6,8).
SECTION II – HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most human infections with VSV appear to be subclinical(1,6,8). In patients that show clinical manifestations, the initial symptom is high fever that is often biphasic. Subsequent symptoms are "flu-like" including severe malaise, headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, retrosternal pain, eye aches, and nausea(1,3,6,7). Occasionally a disease course with haemorrhages similar to dengue fever has been seen(6). Vesicle formation on the oral mucosa, lips, and nose is possible, but these are rare symptom of vesicular stomatitis (VS)(3,6,7). Most human cases of VS have been diagnosed in laboratory workers(3). In the laboratory, VSV has been engineered to target cancer cells or to stimulate immunity against diseases such as AIDS or influenza(8).
EPIDEMIOLOGY: VS exists in North and South America, Africa and Asia but not in central Europe(6). Serological surveys indicate that the prevalence of infection may be high among some populations in enzootic areas. For example, in a rural locality in Panama, more than 90% of the adult population is affected(3); however, the precise frequency of VS is not well established, as the disease often goes unnoticed due to its benign course.
HOST RANGE: Humans(1,2,4,5,6,8), horses(2,4,6,8), cattle, pigs, mules(2,6), sand flies(5,6), grasshoppers(4), and rodents(2).
INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Bite of an infected sand fly(1,5,7,8); by direct contact with abrasions on the skin; by contact with infected domestic animals; or by inhaling aerosols via the nasopharyngeal route(1,3). The virus has also been transmitted via accidental autoinoculation or inhalation of aerosols in a laboratory setting(3,8).
INCUBATION PERIOD: A wide range of incubation periods have been reported from 30 hours(1,6) to 6 days(7).
COMMUNICABILITY: There is no documented evidence of person-to-person transmission of VSV.
SECTION III - DISSEMINATION
RESERVOIR: The main reservoir is the sand fly, although arboreal rodents and non-human primates may also harbour VSV(7). Grasshoppers have also been implicated as a potential reservoir for VSV(4).
ZOONOSIS: Yes, humans can contract VSV through direct contact with infected animals, or indirectly through the bite of an infected fly(1,5,7,8).
VECTORS: Sand fly ( Phlebotomus spp.) appears to be the most important vector for VSV(2,6,8). Black flies ( Simuliidae )(2,5,6), midges ( Culicoides spp.), mosquitoes ( Aedes spp.)(2,5,8) and other diptera(2,5,6) have also been implicated.
SECTION IV – STABILITY AND VIABILITY
DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Unknown.
SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: VSV is inactivated by 1% cresylic acid, phenolics, chlorinated phenol, 2.5% phenol, 0.4% HCl, 2% sodium orthophenylphenate(9), and sodium hypochlorite(1,9).
PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated at low pH (1.5)(9), and immediately upon heating to 60 °C(10,11). VSV in stroma-free haemoglobin can also be inactivated by phototreatment (for example, with red light-emitting diode (655 nm), 1,9-dimethylmethylen blue (DMMB), or methylen blue (MB))(11).
SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: VSV can survive for 3 to 4 days in infected saliva on milking pails, mangers and hay(1).
SECTION V – FIRST AID / MEDICAL
SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms. Human VSV infections are confirmed by virus isolation from throat swabs or blood(1,2,6). Other methods of detection include PCR(1,2,6), ELISA(1,2), neutralisation(2), compliment fixation, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy(1).
Note: All diagnostic methods are not necessarily available in all countries.
FIRST AID/TREATMENT: No specific therapy is currently available. Symptomatic treatment and prevention of secondary infections is important(6).
IMMUNIZATION: None currently available for use in humans.
SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS
LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 46 recorded cases (with no deaths) until 1980(12).
SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood(3,4,6), throat secretions(1,3,6), saliva(1,3,4), exudates, or epithelium from open vesicles(1,3,4).
PRIMARY HAZARDS: Exposure of skin and mucous membranes to VSV via infectious aerosols and/or droplets(3).
SPECIAL HAZARDS: Handling infected livestock is a well documented hazard(1,2,3,6,7).
SECTION VII – EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION
RISK GROUP CLASSIFICATION: Risk Group 3.
CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Containment Level 3 facilities, equipment, and operational practices for work involving infectious or potentially infectious materials, animals, or cultures.
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Personnel entering the laboratory should remove street clothing and jewellery, and change into dedicated laboratory clothing and shoes, or don full coverage protective clothing (i.e., completely covering all street clothing). Additional protection may be worn over laboratory clothing when infectious materials are directly handled, such as solid-front gowns with tight fitting wrists, gloves, and respiratory protection. Eye protection must be used where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes(13).
OTHER PRECAUTIONS: All activities with infectious material should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) or other appropriate primary containment device in combination with personal protective equipment. Centrifugation of infected materials must be carried out in closed containers placed in sealed safety cups, or in rotors that are loaded or unloaded in a biological safety cabinet. The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Open wounds, cuts, scratches, and grazes should be covered with waterproof dressings. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities(13).
SECTION VIII - HANDLING AND STORAGE
SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle and, wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply appropriate disinfectant, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre. Allow sufficient contact time before clean up (30 min)(13).
DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all materials for disposal by steam sterilisation, chemical disinfection, and/or incineration(13).
STORAGE: In sealed, leak-proof containers that are appropriately labelled and locked in a Containment Level 3 laboratory(13).
SECTION IX – REGULATORY AND OTHER INFORMATION
REGULATORY INFORMATION: The import, transport, and use of pathogens in Canada is regulated under many regulatory bodies, including the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Environment Canada, and Transport Canada. Users are responsible for ensuring they are compliant with all relevant acts, regulations, guidelines, and standards.
UPDATED: September 2010.
PREPARED BY: Pathogen Regulation Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada.
Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Pathogen Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.
Copyright © Public Health Agency of Canada, 2010 Canada