Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Yersiniosis, enterocolitis, pseudotuberculosis

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram negative rod-shaped to ovoid bacilli, some strains produce a heat-stabile enterotoxin (ST), serologic identification of somatic antigens (Y. pseudotuberculosis - O-group 1 strains most frequent>90%) SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Acute enteric disease manifested by acute watery diarrhea, enterocolitis, acute mesenteric lymphadenitis mimicking appendicitis, fever, headache, pharyngitis, anorexia, vomiting, erythema nodosum, arthritis, iritis, cutaneous ulceration, hepatosplenic abscesses, osteomyelitis and septicemia; Y. enterocolitica - gastroenterocolitis syndrome; Y. pseudotuberculosis - abdominal pain, higher case fatality rate in immunocompromised individuals

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; 2/3 of Y. enterocolitica cases occur among infants and small children; 3/4 of Y. pseudotuberculosis cases involve 5 to 20 year olds; highest rate during cold season in temperate climates; epidemics associated with hospitals and schools as well as contaminated vehicles (milk)

HOST RANGE: Y. pseudotuberculosis is primarily a zoonotic disease of wild and domesticated birds and mammals, with humans as incidental hosts; Y. enterocolitica has been recovered from a wide variety of animals without signs of disease (fatal outbreak in chinchillas); household pets - sick puppies and kittens; pigs

INFECTIOUS DOSE: 106 organisms

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Fecal-oral transmission by contact with infected persons or animals, or by eating and drinking fecally contaminated food and water; nosocomial transmission has been reported; transmission by infected blood products has been reported

INCUBATION PERIOD: Probably 3 to 7 days, generally under 10 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Fecal shedding at least as long as symptoms exist; untreated cases may excrete organism for 2 to 3 months; chronic carrier state exists

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Principal reservoirs are domestic animals; Y. enterocolitica has been recovered from healthy animals and from primates with acute enteric disease; pigs may be an important reservoir through pork products, especially head meats; Y. pseudotuberculosis is widespread among many species of avian and mammalian hosts

ZOONOSIS: Yes, by contact with infected animals

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to many antibiotics; may be resistant to penicillin and its semisynthetic derivatives

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, iodines, phenolics, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170° C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Water - 20 days; beets - 1 to 2 days; linen - 18 hours; seawater - up to 105 days (winter); soil - 540 days

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirmation by serologic agglutination tests; circulating antibodies; stool samples; ELISA

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Antibiotic therapy may be helpful for gastrointestinal symptoms; definitely indicated for septicemia or other invasive disease

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: None

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: No reported infections to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, feces, urine,

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion, accidental parenteral inoculation

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Contact with infected animals

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities with cultures or potentially infectious clinical materials; animal biosafety level 2 practices and facilities for activities involving infected animals

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene and frequent hand washing

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration (animal wastes)

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labeled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: January, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright ©

Health Canada, 2001

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