Vaccinia virus

Vaccinia virus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Vaccinia virus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Poxvirus, smallpox vaccine

CHARACTERISTICS: Poxviridae; 230 x 400 nm, complex coat and capsid, dsDNA

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Virus disease of skin induced by inoculation for the prevention of smallpox - vesicular or pustular lesion, area of induration or erythema surrounding a scab or ulcer at inoculation site; major complications encephalitis, progressive vaccinia (immunocompromised susceptible), eczema vaccinatum - a localized or systemic dissemination of vaccinia virus, fetal vaccinia; minor complications - generalized vaccinia with multiple lesions; auto-inoculation of mucous membranes or abraded skin, benign rash, secondary infections; complications are serious for those with eczema or who are immunocompromised; death is most often the result of postvaccinial encephalitis or progressive vaccinia

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Routine vaccination is no longer carried out as smallpox has now been eradicated; only used in armed forces and laboratories

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Vaccines have potency of 108 pock-forming units/mL; infectious dose unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Virus may be transmitted to contacts of individuals who have been vaccinated recently

INCUBATION PERIOD: 1 week after vaccination (lesion at point of inoculation); generalized vaccinia 5-10 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable to unvaccinated contacts

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans; held in restricted stocks

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: N/A

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Heat-labile antigen destroyed at 60° C, heat-stable antigen withstands 100° C (both may be present in infected tissue)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Lyophilized vaccinia virus maintains potency for 18 months at 4-6° C, may be stable when dried onto inanimate surfaces

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirmation by identification of vaccinia pocks, isolation of virus, serology

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Vaccinia immune globulin and methisazone may be of value in treating complications

IMMUNIZATION: Smallpox vaccine is indicated for laboratory workers directly involved with vaccinia and vaccinia virus recombinants

PROPHYLAXIS: See Treatment

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 18 reported variola laboratory infections and 2 reported infections of laboratory workers with recombinant vaccinia virus

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Lesion fluids or crusts, respiratory secretions or tissues of infected hosts

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion, parenteral inoculation, droplet or aerosol exposure of mucous membranes or broken skin with infectious fluids or tissues

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Some poxviruses are stable when dried

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for all activities involving the manipulation of this virus (with vaccination); primary containment devices and biological safety cabinets are recommended

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves and gown when working with agent

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Immunization of staff working directly with vaccinia

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time before clean up (30 min)

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: May, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

This MSDS / PSDS document, provided by Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), is offered here as a FREE public service to visitors of MSDSonline. As outlined in this site’s Terms of Use, MSDSonline is not responsible for the accuracy, content or any aspect of the information contained therein.