Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Streptococcus pneumoniae

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Pneumococcus, Diplococcus, Pneumococcal pneumonia

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram-positive diplococci, alpha hemolysis on blood agar, no specific group antigen, facultatively anaerobic, lancet-shaped or in chains, more than 90 serotypes

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Sudden onset with shaking chill, pleural pain, dyspnea, a cough productive of rusty sputum and leukocytosis; clinical features include pneumonia, bacteremia, otitis media, meningitis, sinusitis, peritonitis and arthritis; onset may be less abrupt in elderly requiring x-rays for diagnosis; in infants, vomiting and convulsions may be initial manifestations; important cause of death in infants and elderly; 5-10% fatality with antimicrobial therapy, but 20-40% among patients with underlying disease; neurologic sequelae and/or learning disabilities can occur in meningitis patients

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Continuing endemicity, particularly in infancy, old age and alcoholics; more frequent in industrial cities and lower socio-economic groups; occurs in all climates and seasons; incidence is highest in winter and spring in temperate zones; usually sporadic in North America but may occur in epidemics in closed populations

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By droplet spread; by direct oral contact; indirectly through articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharges; person-to-person transmission of the organisms is common, but illness among casual contacts and attendants is infrequent

INCUBATION PERIOD: Not well determined

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable until discharges of mouth and nose no longer contain virulent pneumococci in significant numbers; penicillin renders patient non-infectious within 24-48 hours; many persons are carriers; risk of infection following contact with carrier or infected person low, except in institutional settings

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans; pneumococci are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy persons throughout the world

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to penicillin and erythromycin

DRUG RESISTANCE: High level of resistance to penicillin; resistance to other therapeutic agents such as TMP/SMX, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, iodines

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170° C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Mouse carcass - 180-270 days; Dust - up to 25 days; Glass - 1-11 days; Sputum at room temperature - 7 days; Gauze 2-15 days

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms of infection; confirm bacteriologically

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Penicillin G, administered parenterally (erythromycin for those hypersensitive to penicillin)

IMMUNIZATION: Polyvalent vaccine containing capsular polysaccharides for those at high risk of fatal infection (vaccine should be given only once to adults to avoid systemic reactions to a second dose); vaccine is less effective in those under 2 years of age

PROPHYLAXIS: Penicillin treatment

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 78 recorded cases of Streptococcus spp. with 4 deaths up to 1976; 5th most common laboratory-acquired infection

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Sputum, blood, respiratory secretions, throat swabs

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Inhalation of infectious aerosols; direct contact of mucous membranes; accidental parenteral inoculation

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for all activities involving known or potentially infected clinical materials or cultures; animal biosafety level 2 facilities for studies utilizing infected animals

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: May, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright ©

Health Canada, 2001

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