Sporothrix schenckii

Sporothrix schenckii

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Sporothrix schenckii

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Sporotrichosis, "Rose handler's disease"; multiple obsolete names occur in the literature

CHARACTERISTICS: Family Ophistomataceae; Dimorphic fungus, yeast form - round to cigar-shaped budding cells in animal tissues 2 µm x 3-6 µm, filamentous form - thin septate mycelium and ovoid conidia 2-3 µm in diameter

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Fungal disease, usually of the skin, often of an extremity, which begins as a nodule; lymphatics draining the area become firm and cordlike, forming a series of nodules which may ulcerate; may disseminate causing arthritis, meningitis, pneumonitis and other visceral infections, occurs rarely; fatality uncommon

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; more frequent in males; often an occupation disease of farmers, gardeners and horticulturists; disease is characteristically sporadic and relatively uncommon

HOST RANGE: Yeast form - Humans, dogs, cats, horses, armadillos, others

Mould form - plants

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Introduction of fungus through the skin by pricks of thorns or barbs, handling of sphagnum moss or by slivers from wood or lumber; outbreaks have occurred among children playing with and adults working with baled hay; pulmonary sporotrichosis is assumed to arise by inhalation of conidia, may result by hematogenous dissemination, or both

INCUBATION PERIOD: The lymphatic form may develop 1 week to 3 months after injury

COMMUNICABILITY: One documented case of person-to-person transfer

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Soil, decaying vegetation, wood

ZOONOSIS: Veterinary care of infected animals (cats, horses) has led to infection

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to iodides, Itraconazole, amphotericin B

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, iodine, phenolics, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde; susceptibility to 70% ethanol questionable

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives for months to years in soil, vegetation, on wood etc.

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by culture - biopsy, exudate, blood if systemic

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Oral iodides or Itraconazole for lymphocutaneous infection; amphotericin B for other forms Itraconazole can also be effective; immunocompromised patients may require life long control with Itraconazole following amphotericin B treatment

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: None

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: More than 12 reported laboratory-acquired infections primarily local skin or eye infections associated with splashing material into the eye, scratching or injecting infected material into the skin, or being bitten by an experimentally infect animal; skin infections have resulted also from handling cultures or necropsy of animals without a known break in technique: no pulmonary infections have been reported

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Clinical specimens - lesion aspirates, pus, exudate; environmental sources - soil, vegetation

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Direct contact of broken skin and mucus membranes, accidental parenteral inoculation, handling of infected animals (bites and scratches)

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for all laboratory and experimental animal activities with infected materials

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when handling infected materials

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Avoid contact of contaminated materials with mucus membranes (rubbing eyes, scratching etc.) SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply sodium hypochlorite starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright ©

Health Canada, 2001

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