Serratia spp

Serratia spp.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Serratia spp.

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: S. marcescens, S. liquefaciens, S. odorifera, S. rubidaea, S. ficaria, S. fonticola, S. marinorubra, S. plymuthica

CHARACTERISTICS: Family Enterobacteriaceae, gram negative bacilli, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic, motile with peritrichous flagella, sometimes capsulated, some species produce pink or red pigments

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Opportunistic infections of the endocardium, eyes, blood, wounds, urinary and respiratory tracts; infections are often severe or fatal; Notorious nosocomial pathogens, particularly S. marcescens which is responsible for 4% of hospital acquired pneumonias; Serious reactions have occurred to blood transfusions contaminated with S. liquefaciens; causes ocular complications associated with contact lenses

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; isolated with increasing frequency probably due to nosocomial spread; important nosocomial infection causing outbreaks in nurseries, intensive-care units and renal dialysis units

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Direct contact of the mucous membranes to infectious agents, transferred by contaminated persons, medical devices, intravenous fluids or other solutions; contact with contaminated respiratory therapy devices has resulted in numerous nosocomial infections

INCUBATION PERIOD: Not clearly identified

COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person-to-person

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Ubiquitous, occur in plants, soil and water

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Variable susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs; sensitive to aminoglycosides (amikacin); intrinsically resistant to penicillin G, colistin and cephalothin; multi-drug resistant strains are common including resistance to imipenem; many strains are initially susceptible to cephalosporins and aminocyclinols, but develop resistance during therapy

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, iodines, phenolics, formaldehyde; Strains have been recovered with resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorhexidine; nosocomial infections have been associated with non-medicated hand soap

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170° C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: dust - up to 35 days; glass - 4 to 9 days; beetle - 30 to 35 days; sheet metal - 5 days; paper - 5 days; skin - 30 min; silk threads - up to 72 days

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Careful evaluation of clinical course

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Determine antibiotic susceptibility followed by antibiotic therapy; surgical drainage of wounds or abscesses

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: Not usually administered

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: At least 5 reported laboratory infections with S. marcescens (formerly used as a marker in aerobiology)

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Feces, wound exudates, respiratory specimens, blood, urine

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation; direct contact of mucous membranes with infectious materials; inhalation of infectious droplets; ingestion

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities are recommended for activities involving infectious clinical materials and cultures of S. marcescens and S. liquifaciens

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite; starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright ©

Health Canada, 2001

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