Salmonella spp. (with the exception of those species listed above)

Salmonella spp. (with the exception of those species listed above)

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Salmonella spp. (excluding S. typhi, S. choleraesuis, and S. paratyphi)

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Salmonellosis

CHARACTERISTICS: Family Enterobacteriaceae; gram negative rod; motile, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic; serological identification of somatic and flagellar antigens; over 2000 serotypes capable of causing disease

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Salmonellosis is an acute gastroenteritis; acute infectious disease with sudden onset of abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting; dehydration may be severe in infants and elderly; deaths are uncommon except in very young or very old or debilitated/immunocompromised; morbidity may be high; food borne disease; may progress to more serious septicemia, includes focal infections, abscesses, endocarditis, pneumonia; may also cause typhoid like enteric fever; some cases develop reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome) which may become chronic

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide, more extensively in North America and Europe; higher incidence rate for infants and young children; small outbreaks in general population; large outbreaks in hospitals, institutions, nursing homes, restaurants; 2-3 million infections annually in USA, most go unreported; S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium are the most common in North America

HOST RANGE: Humans; domestic and wild animals, birds

INFECTIOUS DOSE: 100 - 1,000 organisms - ingestion; varies with multiple factors

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By ingestion of directly or indirectly contaminated food, from infected animals or food by infected animal or person; from animal feeds and fertilizers prepared from contaminated meat scraps; fecal-oral transmission from person to person; direct contact with pets such as reptiles, birds, turtles, tortoises

INCUBATION PERIOD: Six to 72 hours, usually about 12-36 hours

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable throughout course of infection; several days to several weeks; temporary carriers can continue for several months; antibiotic therapy can prolong period of communicability; 1% of infected adults and 5% of infected children excrete organism for over 1 year

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans - patients and carriers; domestic and wild animals - poultry (S. enteriditis), swine (S. choleraesuis), cattle, rodents, horses (S. dublin); pets - tortoises, turtles, chicks, dogs, cats; some strains associated with specific animal reservoir

ZOONOSIS: Yes - direct or indirect contact with animals (most are via ingestion); pets especially birds, reptiles, turtles tortoises

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicilllin, TMP-SMX, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones; many strains are antibiotic, or multi-drug resistant; drug susceptibility testing must be performed

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, iodines, phenolics, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170° C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives for long periods in the environment

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for gastrointestinal symptoms; confirm by stool culture, isolation from blood during acute stages

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: For enterocolitis - rehydration and electrolyte replacement; for enteric fever or septicemia - antibiotic therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: Not usually administered

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 48 reported laboratory infections with Salmonella spp.

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Feces, blood, urine; food, feed and environmental materials

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion, parenteral inoculation; importance of aerosol exposure not known

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities with clinical materials known or potentially infected and cultures

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when contact with infected materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene and frequent hand washing

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright ©

Health Canada, 2001

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