Salmonella paratyphi

Salmonella paratyphi

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Salmonella paratyphi

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Enteric fever, Paratyphoid fever, S. paratyphi type A, B and C; S. choleraesuis serotype paratyphi; S. enterica serotype paratyphoid A, B and C

CHARACTERISTICS: Family Enterobacteriaceae; Gram negative rod; motile, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic; serological identification of somatic and flagellar antigens

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Bacterial enteric fever with abrupt onset, continued fever, malaise, headache, anorexia, enlargement of spleen, bradycardia, rose spots on trunk occur on approximately 25% of Caucasians, constipation is more common than diarrhea in adults; complications include perforation/hemorrhage/ulceration of the intestines, less frequently psychosis, hepatitis, cholecystitis, pneumonitis, and pericarditis; clinically similar to typhoid fever but milder with lower case fatality rate; Common enterocolitis may result without enteric fever; characterized by headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration may result; mild and asymptomatic infections occur

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Sporadically or in limited outbreaks; infrequently identified in North America; probably more frequent than reported; serotype B is most common, A less frequent, and C extremely rare

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: usually>1,000 organisms - ingestion; may be reduced by buffered gastric acidity

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Direct or indirect contact with feces or rarely urine of patient or carrier; contaminated food, especially milk, milk products, shellfish, may be contaminated by hands of a carrier; flies may be a possible vector; a few outbreaks related to water supplies have been documented

INCUBATION PERIOD: One to 3 weeks for enteric fever; 1-10 days for gastroenteritis; varies with dose ingested

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable as long as agent persists in excreta throughout illness and for periods up to several weeks or months following; commonly 1-2 weeks after recovery; some are chronic carriers, may persist for years

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans; patients with acute disease and chronic carriers

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: Possibly flies (mechanical only)

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Susceptible to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, TMP-SMX, fluoroquinolones; Multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains are increasing, drug susceptibility is required

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, iodines, phenolics, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170° C for at least I hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Butter - 55 days; raw milk - 11 days; bed bugs - 21 days; melon juice - 48 hours; flies - 10 days; some salmonella strains can survive in the environment for years

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; bacteriological examination of blood, feces; examine contaminated food for cases of enterocolitis; serology is not effective

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Antibiotic therapy following drug susceptibility testing for cases of enteric fever; hydration therapy

IMMUNIZATION: Standard vaccines not proven to be effective - none

PROPHYLAXIS: Antibiotic prophylaxis

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Typhoid is second most commonly reported laboratory infection (256 cases with 20 deaths); salmonellosis is also commonly reported (48 cases)

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Feces, urine, bile, blood

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion, parenteral inoculation; importance of aerosol exposure not known

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for all activities utilizing known or potentially infectious clinical materials and cultures

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when contact with infected materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene and frequent handwashing

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing; gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright ©

Health Canada, 2001

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