Pseudomonas spp. (excluding B. mallei, B. pseudomallei)

Pseudomonas spp. (excluding B. mallei, B. pseudomallei)

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Pseudomonas spp. (excluding B. mallei, B. pseudomallei)

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: P. aeruginosa, P. cepacia

CHARACTERISTICS: Family Pseudomonadaceae, gram negative bacillus, aerobic, non-spore forming, some pigmented (pyocyanin, fluorescein), motile by polar flagella, variety of toxins produced

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Opportunistic pathogen, greatest risk of disease in the immunocompromised; most medical conditions arise from colonization of pathogen in the respiratory and urinary tracts or due to deep disseminated infections leading to pneumonia and bacteremia; chronic respiratory infections among cystic fibrosis patients; eye infections (especially in contact lens wearers); nosocomial infections causing severe and often fatal infections (case fatality in susceptible populations is 30%), increasingly associated with bacterial meningitis, abscesses, endocarditis

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; increasing in frequency in recent years; commonly a nosocomial infection associated with contaminated instruments; 16% of nosocomial pneumonia, 12% of hospital acquired urinary-tract infections; rarely causes community acquired infections in immunocompetent patients

HOST RANGE: Humans, animals, plants

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Direct contact with contaminated water, aerosols or aspirations, by contact of mucous membranes with discharges from infected conjunctivae or upper respiratory tract of infected persons through contaminated objects (improperly sterilized medical equipment, contaminated IV fluids) or fingers;

INCUBATION PERIOD: Variable depending on infection; eye infection - 24 to 72 hours

COMMUNICABILITY: Can be transmitted during course of active infection

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Saprophyte - soil, water, decomposing matter; infected animals and humans; infected solutions - I.V., soaps, eye drops, humidifiers; organism thrives in moist conditions

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to extended spectrum penicillins, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluroquinolones, polymixins and monobactams; aminoglycoside with a beta-lactam penicillin is the first line of treatment

DRUG RESISTANCE: Multidrug resistant strains are on the rise

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde; few reports of this bacteria growing in disinfectant solutions; alcohol-containing disinfectants recommended for resistant strains

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170° C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives for several months in water with minimal nutrients

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Bacteriological identification of infection

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Antibiotic therapy - aggressive treatment is necessary to avoid chronic infections; drainage of wounds; local application of antibiotic ointment or drops

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: Antibiotic prophylaxis, not usually administered

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: No reported infections to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Clinical specimens - respiratory secretions, wound exudates, blood, urine; environmental specimens - water, infected solutions (IV, disinfectants, soap)

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation; direct contact of mucous membranes with infected materials; inhalation of infectious aerosols and ingestion also present a hazard

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities involving suspected or known infectious specimens and cultures

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat, gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene, frequent hand washing and the avoidance of rubbing eyes as a precautionary measure against eye infections

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time before clean up and disposal (30 min)

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal - steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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