Opisthorchis spp

Opisthorchis spp.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Opisthorchis spp.

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Opisthorchiasis, 0. felineus, 0. viverrini

CHARACTERISTICS: Liver fluke, helminth, trematode; leaf-like shape, 8-12 mm in length; reside in the biliary and pancreatic ducts of the mammalian host and remain attached to the mucosa; snails are first intermediate hosts where the organism undergoes several developmental stages (sporocysts, rediae, cercariae); released cercariae penetrate freshwater fish (second intermediate host); mammalian definitive hosts become infected by consuming fish containing metacercariae; eggs are yellowish-brown, oval, average 28 x 16 µm and release miracidia in the first intermediate host

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Most infections are asymptomatic; clinical manifestations include dyspepsia, abdominal discomforts or pains; diarrhea or constipation, hepatomegaly and malnutrition, enlarged gall bladder and relapsing cholangitis; occasional complications includes gallstones and obstructive jaundice; cholangiocarcinoma is associated with opisthorchiasis; infection may also present an acute phase of fever, edema, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, rash and eosinophilia

EPIDEMIOLOGY: 0. viverrini endemic in Thailand, Laos, Kampuchea; 0. felineus reported in central, eastern and southern Europe, particularly Poland, Germany and European Commonwealth of Independent States

HOST RANGE: Humans, snails, fish, cats, dogs, and fish-eating mammals

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Ingestion of raw or improperly cooked fish containing encysted larvae

INCUBATION PERIOD: Usually 2-3 weeks

COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person-to-person

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Cyprinoid fish, carp; dogs, cats and fish-eating mammals

ZOONOSIS: Yes - infection acquired from animals, which act as definitive hosts

VECTORS: Snails

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to praziquantel

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: All infective stages sensitive to heating at 56° C for 30 minutes

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Sensitive to freeze and thawing

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms, confirm by microscopic demonstration of eggs in feces (eggs are indistinguishable from those of Chlonochis)

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Administer appropriate drug therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: None reported to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Feces

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion of infective eggs; skin penetration of infective larvae

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Infected animals pose a potential hazard to laboratory personnel

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment equipment, facilities are recommended for activities with infective stages of the parasite and infectious body fluids or tissues

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at the perimeter and working towards the center; allow sufficient contact time (30 mins) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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