Norwalk virus

Norwalk virus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Norwalk virus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Acute viral gastroenteritis, Norwalk-like disease, epidemic viral gastroenteritis, acute infectious nonbacterial gasteroenteritis, viral diarrhea, epidemic diarrhea and vomiting, winter vomiting disease, epidemic nausea and vomiting

CHARACTERISTICS: Caliciviridae; round, non-enveloped, 27-32 nm virion; single-stranded positive - sense RNA

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Abrupt onset of diarrhea, vomiting, non-bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps; 25-50% of affected persons report myalgias, malaise, headache, nausea and low-grade fever; illness usually resolves within 24-48 hours; fatality is associated with electrolyte imbalance; symptoms can persist for up to several weeks; higher risk of symptomatic infection in individuals with preexisting levels of antigen-specific antibodies have been documented

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide and common; affects mainly older children and adults; frequent outbreaks in camps, schools, nursing homes, cruise ships and areas with contaminated drinking and swimming water; outbreaks are limited to 1-2 weeks

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Principally by fecal-oral route; other documented sources include water, food (particularly shellfish and salads), aerosol and fomites

INCUBATION PERIOD: From 10-60 hours; usually 24-48 hours

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable during the acute stage of the disease; up to 48 hours after resolution of symptoms; presymptomatic shedding has been implicated in epidemiological studies

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antivirals

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Resistant to pH5-10, ether, acid; survives at 60° C for 30 minutes

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Stability unknown; found in contaminated water supplies, lakes

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by RIA; conclusive diagnosis by EM examination of stool samples

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: No specific therapy other than electrolyte and fluid replacement

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: None reported to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Stool specimens

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion; exposure of the mucous membranes to infective aerosols

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment equipment for all activities involving the virus or any infectious or potentially infectious body fluids or tissues

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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