Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Neisseria gonorrhoeae

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Gonococcus, Gonorrhea, GC

CHARACTERISTICS: Family Neisseriaceae; gram negative diplococci, intra and extra-cellular, ßlactamases plasmids (PNPG strain); infects columnar and transitional epithelium; antigenically heterogeneous

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Localized inflammatory conditions - urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis (PID), pharyngitis of adults, vulvovaginitis in children; conjunctivitis of the newborn; septicemia may occur with lesions, bacteremia in the arthritis and dermatitis syndrome; endocarditis and meningitis; other complications include perihepatitis and neonatal amnionitis; death is rare except among those with endocarditis; reinfection is common despite development of antibodies

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Common worldwide; affects both sexes and all ages; prevalent in sexually active adolescents and younger adults; incidence increasing worldwide but decreasing in North America; incidence in Canada was 18.6 per 100 000 in 1995

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By contact with exudates from mucous membranes of infected persons, almost always as a result of sexual activity; conjunctivitis of the newborn - contact with infected birth canal during childbirth

INCUBATION PERIOD: Usually 2-7 days, sometimes longer

COMMUNICABILITY: Period of communicability may extend for months if untreated especially in asymptomatic individuals; effective therapy usually ends communicability within hours

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Cefixime, ceftriscone,ciprofloxacin, orafloxacin; third generation cephalosporins and fluroquinolones are generally effective sensitive to streptomycin, tetracycline and ceftriaxone

DRUG RESISTANCE: Resistance is due to carriage of plasmids which carry genes for resistance (e.g., PNPG strain resistant to penicillin); widespread resistance to penicillin and tetracycline; resistance to fluroquinones (notably ciprofloxicin and norfloxicin) have been reported

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, iodines

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) a dry heat (160-170° C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Glass - 48 hours; paper - up to 3 days; plastic - 24 hours; sponge - 24 hours; toilet seat - several hours

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; serological tests lack specificity and not recommended; smears and culture are necessary for confirmation

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Antibiotic therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: Silver nitrate or erythromycin topically in the eyes of newborns at birth

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Four cases of laboratory-associated gonorrhoea have been reported in the US

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Conjunctival, urethral and cervical exudates; synovial fluid; urine, feces; cerebrospinal fluid

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation; direct or indirect contact with mucous membranes with infectious clinical materials; the importance of aerosols is not determined

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for all activities involving clinical materials and cultures; additional primary containment and personnel precautions (biosafety level 3) for all activities involving generation of aerosols or droplets and the production of quantities or concentrations of organisms

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when handling infected laboratory animals and when there is the likelihood of direct skin contact with infectious materials

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towel and then 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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