Measles virus

Measles virus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Measles virus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Rubeola, Hard measles, Red measles, Morbilli

CHARACTERISTICS: Family Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus; 100-250 nm diameter, enveloped; single-stranded RNA

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: An acute disease with prodromal fever, conjunctivitis, coryza, cough and Koplik spots on the buccal mucosa; red blotchy rash appears in 3-7 days, beginning on the face and becoming generalized, lasting 4-7 days; leukopenia; other symptoms include anorexia, diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, otitis media and lymphoadenopathy; more severe in infants and adults; systemic infection, primary site of infection is the respiratory epithelium of the nasopharynx; bacterial superinfection; case fatality ratemay be as high as 25% but usually less than 0.5% in Canada

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Common in children (90% infected) prior to immunization; endemic in large metropolitan areas, epidemic every 2 years; sporadic and severe in small areas; immunization reduced incidence by 99%; now limited to preschool children, teenagers, young adults and those refusing immunization; resurgence of disease between 1989-1991 attributed to low vaccination coverage; occurs primarily in late winter and early spring

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: 0.2 units (intranasal spray)

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By droplet spread or direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected persons; less commonly by airborne spread or indirect contact with freshly infected articles; in closed areas infections have been documented for up to 2 h after source of infection has been removed; one of the most readily transmitted diseases

INCUBATION PERIOD: 8-13 days, usually 10 days form exposure to onset of fever; 14 days until rash appears; IG given after 3rd day may extend incubation period to 21 days instead of preventing disease

COMMUNICABILITY: Extremely communicable from slightly before the prodromal period to 4 days after appearance of rash; minimal after second day of rash

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Not affected by antibiotics

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Rapidly inactivated by heat (30 min at 56° C) or light

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Aerosol remains infective at least 30 minutes; short survival time (< 2 hours) on objects or surfaces

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms and serology for rise in antibody titre

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: None

IMMUNIZATION: Live attenuated vaccine recommended for all persons born after 1957 unless immune or contraindicated

PROPHYLAXIS: Live vaccine, if given within 72 hours of exposure; IG within 6 days for susceptible household contact, infants, or those for whom vaccine is contraindicated

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 1 reported case up to 1974

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates, blood, conjunctiva, urine

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation, droplet exposure of the mucous membranes

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities involving known or potentially infectious clinical materials or cultures

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable; gloves and gown (tight wrists and ties in back) when working in a biosafety cabinet

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Procedures that are likely to generate aerosols should be conducted in a biosafety cabinet

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and then 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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