Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: LCM, lymphocytic meningitis

CHARACTERISTICS: Arenaviridae; ssRNA, enveloped, 50-150 nm diameter

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Biphasic febrile illness, diversity of clinical manifestations - mild influenza-like illness or occasionally, meningeal or meningoencephalomyelitic symptoms, transverse myelitis, a Guillain-Barre-type syndrome; orchitis or parotitis; usually short duration; no chronic infection, infection asymptomatic in one third of individuals; rarely fatal, mortality <1%, recovery from severe disease without sequelae in most cases; temporary or permanent neurological damage is possible; pregnancy-related infection has been associated with abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis and mental retardation

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Initially isolated in 1933; prevalence in humans 2-10%; individuals of all ages are susceptible, infrequent U occurrence, sporadic cases have been reported; outbreaks have occurred from infected pet hamsters or laboratory animals; cases reported in Europe, the Americas, Australia and Japan

HOST RANGE: Humans, guinea pigs, hamsters, mice, monkeys

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Infected mice excrete virus in saliva, urine and feces; man is infected through inhalation of infectious aerosolized particles of rodent urine, feces or saliva, food contaminated with virus, contamination of mucus membranes, skin lesions or cuts with infected body fluids

INCUBATION PERIOD: 8-13 days; 15-21 days (meningeal symptoms)

COMMUNICABILITY: No evidence of person to person spread; vertical transmission from mother to child is possible

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: House mouse (Mus musculus) - virus is harboured throughout life of mouse and transmitted to offspring which become healthy carriers; natural infections also occur in non-human primates (including macaques and marmosets), swine, dogs, hamsters, guinea pigs

ZOONOSIS: Yes

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: evidence of ribavirin susceptibility from in vitro studies

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, 70% ethanol, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to heat inactivation

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Virus survives out of host - mice droppings

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirmation by virus isolation, serology

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: No specific treatment; anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Well documented hazard (46 cases with 5 deaths), especially from infected laboratory rodents (hamsters and mice); cases also reported arising from contaminated cell lines

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, CSF, urine, secretions of the nasopharynx, feces; infected tissues from animals or human sources; presence of virus may be ascertained by inoculation of sample into uninfected mice, presence of specific antibodies by ELISA or IFA is considered diagnostic

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Parenteral inoculation, inhalation, contamination of mucous membranes or broken skin with infected animal tissues or fluids, and exposure to infectious aerosols

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Contaminated tissue cultures represent a potential hazard

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices safety equipment and facilities for laboratory-adapted LCM strains; biosafety level 3 practices, safety equipment, and facilities for activities involving the manipulation of the neurotropic strains of virus and animal studies

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves and gown with tight wrists and tie in back should be worn while working with infectious materials

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Special precautions when working with infected hamsters may be indicated (HEPA filtered respirator); virus may pose a special risk during preganancy because of potential infection of the fetus

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time before clean up (30 min)

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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