Klebsiella spp.

Klebsiella spp.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Klebsiella spp.

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: K. pneumoniae, Friedlander's pneumonia, K. oxytoca, K. ozaenae

CHARACTERISTICS: Family Enterobacteriaceae, gram negative small rods, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic, occurring singly, capsulated and in mucoid colonies

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Frequent cause of nosocomial urinary and pulmonary infections; wound infections; secondary infection in lungs of patients with chronic pulmonary disease; enteric pathogenicity (enterotoxin); ozena (atrophy of nasal mucosa) and rhinoscleroma

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; 2/3 of all infection due to Klebsiella spp. are hospital-acquired; causes 3% of all acute bacterial pneumonia; common source of nosocomial outbreaks

HOST RANGE: Humans, animals (horses, cattle)

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Feces are the most significant source of patient infection; contact with contaminated equipment in hospitals (catheters, I.V. etc, respiratory devices)

INCUBATION PERIOD: Not clearly identified

COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person-to-person

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Soil, water, human skin, nasopharynx and bowel of humans and intestinal tract of animals

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Generally susceptible to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins (7% resistant to ceftazidime); resistant to carbenicillin, ampicillin and quinolones

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, iodines, phenolics, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170° C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Glass coverslips - 4 hrs; lanolin hand cream - several days; bronchodilator solution - days; sawdust in barn - days

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirmation by sputum samples

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Administer antibiotic therapy where necessary

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: Not usually administered

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 1 reported laboratory acquired infection with K. pneumoniae up to 1976

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Respiratory specimens, sputum, pleural exudate; blood, feces, urine, wounds, abscesses, cerebrospinal fluid

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Direct contact of mucous membranes with contaminated objects; inhalation of infectious aerosols; accidental parenteral inoculation; ingestion

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities with cultures or potentially infectious clinical materials

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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