Human T-lymphotrophic virus

Human T-lymphotrophic virus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Human T-lymphotrophic virus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: HTLV-1, Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), T-cell lymphosarcoma (TLCL), peripheral T-cell lymphoma, Sezary's disease, Hairy cell leukemia, tropical spastic paraparesis

CHARACTERISTICS: Retroviridae (Oncornavirus C; spherical, 80-110 nm in diameter, helical nucleoprotein within icosahedral capsid virion; two identical single-stranded RNA, linear, positive sense genome; reverse transcriptase enzyme contained inside virion

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Risk of disease development in the asymptomatic is 5%; causes two divergent diseases: adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL, 20 year latency) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP - 1 to 4 year latency); ATL is characterized by skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and hypercalcemia and usually resistant to treatment; HAM/TSP is a degenerative neurologic disease characterized by progressive bilateral leg weakness and spasticity, spastic bladder and minimal sensory deficits; infective dermatitis in children; uveitis; B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide distribution; endemic in southern Japan, and the Caribbean basin; less common in the Pacific coast of South America, equatorial Africa, and southern USA; frequent among intravenous drug users

HOST RANGE: Humans and possibly non-human primates

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Mother to child transmission through blood or breast milk; transfer of blood or blood products by blood donations or intravenous drug use, and sexual transmission (male-to-female transmission is more efficient)

INCUBATION PERIOD: Unknown

COMMUNICABILITY: Unknown

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antiviral is available to date

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to UV irradiation and heat

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives in blood for days

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by serological analysis and viral isolation

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Administer supportive therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: None reported to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, cerebrospinal fluid

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation, droplet exposure of mucous membrane

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment facilities for activities involving clinical specimens and non-cultured procedures (primary containment devices may be indicated eg. biological safety cabinets) and for activities involving non-human primates and any animals experimentally infected or inoculated with HTLV; Biosafety level 3 practices, containment equipment and facilities for all work culturing HTLV

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Gloves should be worn when handling potentially infectious specimens cultures or tissues; laboratory coats, gloves or suitable protective clothing should be worn

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Keep hands away from eyes, nose and mouth in order to avoid potential exposure of the mucous membranes; eye goggles or face shield may assist in accomplishing this objective

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: April, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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