Human immunodeficiency virus

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Human Immunodeficiency Virus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: HIV, AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, HTLV III LAV

CHARACTERISTICS: Retroviridae (Lentivirus); ss RNA, enveloped icosahedral nucleocapsid, glycoprotein envelope, reverse transcriptase

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Insidious onset with non-specific symptoms such as lymphadenopathy, anorexia, chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fever, and fatigue; opportunistic infections and malignant diseases without a known cause for immune deficiency

EPIDEMIOLOGY: First reported in 1981; cases recorded in Americas, Europe, Africa and many other areas; patient categories - homosexually or bisexually active men, drug abusers, Haitian/African emigrants, hemophiliacs, sexual partners of men and women in these categories, infants born to parents in this category

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Transmitted from person to person through direct exposure to infected body fluids (blood, semen) sexual contact, sharing unclean needles etc.; transplacental transfer can occur

INCUBATlON PERIOD: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that duration from exposure to onset of symptoms has a minimum range from 6 months to more than 7 years

COMMUNICABILITY: Period of communicability extends from asymptomatic period through appearance of opportunistic diseases

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Several reverse transscriptase and protease inhibitors now licensed

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Effectiveness of 56·C - 60·C heat in destroying HIV in serum not certain, however, heating small volumes of serum for 30 min at 56·C before serologic testing reduces residual infectivity to below detectable levels

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Drying in environment causes rapid (within several hours) 90-99% reduction in HIV concentration

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Serological monitoring for evidence of HIV infection

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Specific measures for the opportunistic diseases that result from AIDS; "Cocktail" multidrug treatment for HIV

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: Experimental prophylaxis with AZT/DDI or other appropriate drug

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 5 reported laboratory acquired infections with HIV (splashing of infected materials, inapparent skin exposure, puncture wounds); 18 reported cases in health care workers worldwide

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, other specimens containing visible blood, unscreened or inadequately treated blood products

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Direct contact with skin and mucous membranes of the eye, nose and mouth; accidental parenteral inoculation; ingestion; hazard of aerosols exposure unknown

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Extreme care must be taken to avoid spilling and splashing infected materials - virus should be presumed in/on all equipment and devices coming in direct contact with infected materials

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities involving clinical specimens and non-cultured procedures (primary containment devices may be indicated eg. biological safety cabinets) and for activities involving non-human primates and any animals experimentally infected or inoculated with HIV; Biosafety level 3 practices, containment equipment and facilities for all work culturing HIV

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Gloves should be worn when handling potentially infectious specimens, cultures or tissues; laboratory coats, gowns or suitable protective clothing should be worn

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Keep hands away from the eyes, nose and mouth in order to avoid potential exposure of the mucous membranes; eye goggles or face shields may assist in accomplishing this objective

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal - steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: September 1996 Prepared by: Office of Biosafety

LCDC

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