Human coronavirus

Human coronavirus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Human coronavirus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Viral respiratory disease, viral gastroenteritis

CHARACTERISTICS: Coronaviridae; first isolated in 1965, spherical enveloped virion, 80-160 nm in diameter, crown-like in appearance, club-shaped peplomars, single-stranded, linear, non-segmented, positive-sense RNA genome;

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Usually produce an afebrile cold in adults, characterized by nasal discharge, and malaise; may exacerbate respiratory symptoms in asthmatic and chronic pulmonary disease patients; implicated in gastroenteritis; greater occurrence in children; maybe associated with pneumonia and pleural reactions, rarely manifests in neurological complications; immunity is serotype specific; antigenic heterogeneity allows for multiple symptomatic reinfections

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; major cause of respiratory disease between late fall and early winter; accounts for 10-30% of all colds

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By inhalation of aerosols; respiratory transmission from person-to-person; indirectly through fomites

INCUBATION PERIOD: From 2 to 5 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable during the acute and convalescent stages of the disease

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antivirals

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to heat

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives up to 24 hours on metal surfaces at ambient conditions

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by serological testing and viral isolation

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: No specific therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: None reported to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Nasal discharges, respiratory secretions; stools

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Droplet exposure of the mucous membranes of the eye, nose and/or mouth; inhalation of infectious aerosols; ingestion

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, equipment and containment facilities for activities involving virus, infectious body tissues and fluids

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene and frequent handwashing is important

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing cover spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at the perimeter and working towards the center; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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