Herpes simplex virus

Herpes simplex virus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Herpes simplex virus (HSV)

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Herpesvirus type 1 (fever blister, cold sore), Herpesvirus type 2 (genital herpes), Herpesvirus hominis, Alphaherpes viral disease, HHV 1 and HHV 2; human herpes virus

CHARACTERISTICS: Herpesviridae, Alphavirinae, genus Simplexvirus; double-stranded linear DNA virus, icosahedral, lipid envelope, 110 - 200 nm diameter, HSV types 1 and 2 can be differentiated immunologically

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Classic presentation of primary HSV-1 is herpes gingivostomatitis - oral mucosa, HSV 1 - primary infection usually mild (10% of cases can be severe) and in early childhood; reactivation of latent infection results in fever blisters or cold sores, usually on the face and lips which crust and heal within a few days, may be CNS involvement (meningoencephalitis), 70% mortality rate if left untreated; causes about 2% of acute pharyngotonsillitis; Classic presentation of a primary HSV-2 infection is herpes genitalis, HSV 2 - genital herpes, sexually transmitted, associated with aseptic meningitis, vaginal delivery can cause risk to newborn, encephalitis and death; HSV-1 and HSV-2, either may infect5 te genital tract or oral muscosa

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; 50% - 90% of adults possess antibodies to HSV type 1; 20% - 30% of adults possess antibodies to HSV type 2; prevalence is greater in lower socio-economic groups and in sexually promiscuous individuals; 85% of infections caused by HSV-2 are genital and 90% of HSV-1 infections are oral

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Type 1 - contact with saliva of carriers, infection of hands of health care personnel ( ie dentist); Type 2 - usually by sexual contact; infected secretions from symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals

INCUBATION PERIOD: HSV-1: 7-10 days; Primary genital HSV-2: 2 -12 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Virus may be secreted in saliva for up to 7 weeks after recovery and from genital lesions for 7-12 days: asymptomatic oral and genital infections, with transient viral shedding, are common; reactivation occurs repeatedly precipitated by over-exposure to sunlight, febrile, physical or emotional stress or foods and drugs, especially chemotherapy; HSV may be shed intermittently from mucosal sites for years, possible life long

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Acyclovir, valcyclovir, famiclovir, and cidofovir, acyclovir remains an effective option and famiclovir and valcyclovir offer improved oral bioavailability; trial studies for several other anti viral drugs are underway; trial studies for topical therapy are underway (ie idoxuridine)

DRUG RESISTANCE: Acyclovir resistant HSV-1 strains have been documented

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to common disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, iodine solutions containing ethanol, 70% ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Temperature of greater than 56° C maintained for 20.5 hrs eliminates infectivity, readily inactivated by lipid solvents, exposure to pH of less than 4

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Does not survive for long periods outside of host

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor those receiving chemotherapy or pregnant women near term with a history of genital herpes; Serological testing and isolation of virus from lesions

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Acyclovir is best therapy for all clinical syndromes

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: In selected circumstances in genital HSV

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Not demonstrated cause of such infections, however HSV is frequently present in a variety of clinical materials

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Clinical materials and isolates of HSV

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion; accidental parenteral inoculation; droplet exposure of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, or mouth; inhalation of concentrated aerosolized materials

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities utilizing known or potentially infectious clinical materials or cultures

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Although there is no definitive evidence that infectious aerosols are a significant source of infections, avoid the generation of aerosols during the handling of clinical materials, isolates, or during the necropsy of animals; work in a biosafety cabinet

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: June, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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