Fasciola hepatica

Fasciola hepatica

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Fascioliasis, sheep liver fluke disease, halzoun, marrara, Human Fascioliasis (HF)

CHARACTERISTICS: Trematode; relatively flat and leaf-like, fleshy, measures 20-30 mm in length by 8-13 mm wide; distinct cephalic cone gives a characteristic shouldered appearance; eggs are large (130-150 µm by 60-90 µm), ovoid and unsegmented when laid

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Acute symptoms may persist from several weeks to months and include acute dyspepsia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, prolonged high fever, abdominal pains and sometime hepatomegaly, hepatic tenderness and urticaria; ectopic infection sites including the lungs, intestinal wall, heart, brain, biliary duct and skin can occur; in endemic areas, acute nasopharyngitis can occur

EPIDEMIOLOGY: World wide human infections reported in sheep and cattle raising areas (in South America, Caribbean, Europe, Australia and Middle East and Asia); cases documented in USA; F. gigantica restricted to mainly Africa, western Pacific and Hawaii

HOST RANGE: Humans, sheep, cattle, snails, cattle, water buffalo, llama, emus

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Eating uncooked aquatic plants (such as watercress) containing encysted forms (metacercariae) of the parasite, contaminated water, eating parasitised cattle or sheep liver

INCUBATION PERIOD: Variable; depends on the dose of flukes

COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person-to-person

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans are accidental hosts; infection in nature maintained by cattle, sheep and snails (Family: Lymnaeidae); cattle, water buffalo and other herbivorous mammals harbors F. gigantica

ZOONOSIS: Yes - infections acquired indirectly through cattle, sheep, water buffalo

VECTORS: Snails ( family lymnaeidae)

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to bithionol, praziquantel, nitazoxanide, albendazole, triclabendazole (TCBZ - test for strain resistance)

DRUG RESISTANCE: TCBZ resistant striains

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Sensitive to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to heat

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Encysted form can survive for prolonged periods in the environment, resistant to drying

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by serology , indirect haemagglutination test (IHAI), and microscopic examination of flukes, eggs in feces

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Administer appropriate drug therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Not reported to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Tissue biopsy specimens, feces, bile aspirated from duodenum

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion; accidental parenteral inoculation

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment equipment for all activities involving the infective stages of the parasite, and potentially infectious body fluids and tissues

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat: gloves when skin contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Work with this agent should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet or its equivalent

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at the perimeter and working towards the center; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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