Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic

Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: ETEC, traveller's diarrhea, gastroenteritis

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram negative rod; motile, aerobic; produces a heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and a heat stabile enterotoxin (ST)

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Self-limiting cholera-like disease in infants and adults; profuse watery diarrhea without blood or mucous; abdominal cramping, vomiting, acidosis, prostration, malaise and dehydration can occur; fever may or may not be present; symptoms usually lasts fewer than 5 days

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Usually sporadic, particularly in underdeveloped countries; may cause common source outbreaks; one of two major leading causes of diarrhea in children in developing countries; has become the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks on cruise ships; accounts for 40-60% of all cases of traveller's diarrhea

HOST RANGE: Humans, livestock, most mammals; species specific, no known non - human hosts for human ETEC

INFECTIOUS DOSE: 100,000,000 organisms to 10,000,000,000 organisms (108 to 1010 ) by ingestion

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Fecal-oral route; poor sanitation; fecal contamination of food, water or fomites; poor personal hygiene

INCUBATION PERIOD: 24-72 hours

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable for duration of fecal excretion (several weeks)

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans, animals; ETEC infections are largely species specific; humans constitute the reservoir for strains causing diarrhea in humans

ZOONOSIS: No

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to wide spectrum of antibiotics; quinolines first choice treatment worldwide

DRUG RESISTANCE: tetracyclines, trimethroprim-sulfamethorazole approximately 40%

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, glutaraldehyde, iodines, phenolics, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by moist heat (121° C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170° C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Dust 4 to 27 days; feces - up to 84 days; fingertip - 45 min; soil - up to 84 days

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm bacteriologically

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Electrolyte fluid therapy (oral or IV); antibiotics may be administered in very severe cases

IMMUNIZATION: oral vaccine under development

PROPHYLAXIS: Short term antibiotic therapy with TMP-SMX or doxycycline for travellers going to high-risk areas with no safe food or water

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 2 reported cases of laboratory infections with E. coli

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Feces; contaminated food, water, fomites

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities involving cultures and infected clinical materials

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene and frequent handwashing

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: January, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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