Enterovirus 70

Enterovirus 70

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Enterovirus 70

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Enteroviral conjunctivitis, Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, AHC, Apollo 11 disease; EO-70

CHARACTERISTICS: Single-stranded RNA, no envelope, 30 nm diameter, icosahedral capsid, Picornaviridae

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Sudden onset of pain or the sensation of a foreign body in the eye; progresses rapidly; swollen eyelids, phobophobia, hyperemia of the conjunctivae, seromucous discharge, subconjunctival haemorrhages; 60-90% of cases have haemorrhages in both eyes and vary in size, large haemorrhages resolves in 7-12 days; rarely systemic and upper respiratory infection; fever and headache in 20% of cases; course of inflammatory is 4-6 days; self-limiting and symptoms resolve in 1-2 weeks; very rarely polio-like paralysis

EPIDEMIOLOGY: First seen in Ghana and Indonesia (1970); pandemic in 1980-82 with spread to tropical areas of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Pacific and parts of Florida and Mexico; small outbreaks in Europe associated with eye clinics; cases among refugees in North America and travellers returning to North America

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By direct or indirect contact with discharge from infected eyes; person-to-person transmission with high attack rates in families; large epidemics associated with overcrowding and low standards of hygiene

INCUBATION PERIOD: Twelve hours to 3 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Unknown, however, at least 4 days after on set and assumed to be communicable for the period of active disease, usually about 1 week

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOS1S: Virus is possibly a variant of some animal viruses

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Not applicable

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde; some non-lipid viruses are only moderately susceptible to 70% ethanol

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by heat (50-60° C for at least 30 min)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Stable in liquid environments, survives for many weeks in water, body fluids and sewage; survives well on surfaces and fomites; -70° C infectivity remains for many years, -4° C weeks

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm serologically; reverse- transcription PCR ( RT-PCR)

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Eye flushing

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: None

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Documented cases in Japanese lab workers

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Conjunctival swabs and scrapings

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Indirect contact of mucous membranes with infected materials

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Touching eyes with infected hands

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities with infected materials and cultures

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable; gloves and gown (tight wrists and ties in back) when conducting procedures in the biosafety cabinet

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Wash hands thoroughly with an antiseptic soap

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wear protective clothing: gently cover spill with paper towel and apply 3% formalin or 2% glutaraldehyde, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: March, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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