Echovirus

Echovirus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Echovirus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Enteric cytopathogenic human orphan viruses; Enterovirus; Boston exanthem disease; Echovirus 22 and Echovirus 23 renamed as human parechovirus 1 and human parechovirus 2 respectively (new type member or Parechovirus genus); Echovirus type 30 now a member of the genus Enterovirus

CHARACTERISTICS: Naked, icosahedral virion, 20-30 nm in diameter; linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA; Picornaviridae, 30 recognized Echovirus serotypes ( 1-9, 11-27, 29-30)

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Most infections are subclinical; clinical manifestations vary from mild to lethal and acute to chronic; associated with aseptic meningitis (mostly serotypes 2,5,6,7 and 9), muscle weakness and paralysis, exanthems and enanthems, pericarditis, myocarditis, common cold, conjunctivitis and infantile diarrhea, acute febrile respiratory illnesses

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; peak incidence in summer and fall; outbreaks common in daycare centres

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Fecal-oral route

INCUBATION PERIOD: Usually 2 to 14 days

COMMUNICABILITY: During the acute phase of the disease; excreted in feces for weeks after symptoms have subsided; person-to-person spread is common

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antivirals

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Resistant to common disinfectants: 70% ethanol, 5% lysol, 1% quaternary ammonium compounds; inactivated by 3% formalin, 2% glutaraldehyde with prolonged treatment

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by heating at 50° C for 2 hours; stable at acidic pH 3 to 5, ether stable; inactivation at environmental temperatures is inhibited by magnesium chloride

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Relatively stable; survives at room temperature up to 3 weeks; stable (many weeks) in liquid environments, water, body fluids and sewage

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm serologically

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: No specific treatment

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available; clinical trials using antiviral compound pleconaril (antipicornaviral agent)

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Three cases were reported up to 1988

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Throat swabs, stools, rectal swabs, and cerebrospinal fluid in aseptic meningitis

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation; ingestion, direct contact of skin or mucous membrane with infectious cultures, body fluids, or droplets

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment facilities for all activities involving the virus or work with infectious body fluids or tissues

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing gently cover spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 3% formalin or 2% glutaraldehyde starting at the perimeter and working towards centre; allow 2 hour contact time before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal: steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: January, 2001

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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