Dengue virus (1, 2, 3, 4)

Dengue virus (1, 2, 3, 4)

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Dengue fever virus (DEN 1, DEN 2, DEN 3, DEN 4)

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Dengue fever, breakbone fever, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), Dengue shock syndrome (DSS)

CHARACTERISTICS: Spherical enveloped virion 40-50 nm in diameter; single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral nucleo capsid; Flaviridae (Flavivirus)

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: An acute febrile disease characterized by the sudden onset of fever for 3 to 5 days, with an intense headache, myalgia, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, anorexia and rash, symptoms are usually self-limiting; dengue hemorrhagic fever, a more severe manifestation on second exposure is characterized by abnormal vascular permeability, hypovolemia and abnormal clotting mechanisms; fatality as high as 40-50%

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Endemic in most regions of the tropics (Asia, India, Caribbean, Africa, Central and South America, and Mexico); maintained mostly by a human-mosquito-human cycle; non-human primate infection common in West Africa

HOST RANGE: Humans, mosquitoes (as a vector, Aedes spp., Stegomyia spp.) and non-human primates

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By bite of infectious mosquitoes mainly Aedes aegypti; most bites occur during the 2 hours after sunrise and several hours before sunset: vertical transmission (infected progeny) does occur, however it is relatively low

INCUBATION PERIOD: From 3 to 14 days; usually 4 to 7 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person-to-person; patient infectious for mosquitoes from shortly before to the end of the febrile period, usually 3 to 5 days: mosquitoes infectious 8 to 12 days after blood meal and remains so for life

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans, mosquitoes (transovarial transmission - extremely high levels of infectious particles in salivary glands); monkey-mosquito cycles common in West Africa and Southeast Asia

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: Mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and other Aedes spp.): eggs of A. aeypti can withstand long periods of dessication, up to 1 year

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antivirals

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to common disinfectants; 70% ethanol, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to heat: low pH inactivates dengue virus

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Virus stable in dried blood and exudates up to several days at room temperature

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm serologically and by isolating virus

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: No specific treatment, however no salicylates and maintain adequate hydration

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 11 cases reported up to 1988; one case resulted from splashing infectious material in the face

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, CSF, tissues, infected mosquitoes

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation; contact with broken skin or mucous membrane; aerosols are an uncommon route of laboratory infections but may be a potential source

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Bite of infected mosquitoes

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment facilities for all activities involving the virus, manipulation of known or potentially infectious tissues and infectious vectors

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: General needle precautions are important; do not bend, recap or break needles; discard used needles directly to puncture-proof containers

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: June 2000

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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