Colorado tick fever virus

Colorado tick fever virus

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Colorado tick fever virus

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Tick-borne fever, arbovirus

CHARACTERISTICS: Coltivirus (Reoviridae), 65-70 nm diameter, ds RNA (Note change from single to double strand RNA)

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Acute febrile, often diphasic, dengue-like disease with infrequent rash; headache, chills, muscle pain, photophobia; brief remission followed by second bout of fever lasting 2-3 days; neutropenia, thrombocytopenia; occasional encephalitis, myocarditis, or hemorrhagic symptoms (especially in children); deaths are rare

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Western North America; most frequent in adult males, but also affects children and women; seasonal incidence parallels the period of greatest tick activity; endemic in occurrence and common in affected area

HOST RANGE: Humans, small mammals

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By bite of an infective tick; immature ticks acquire infection by feeding on infected viremic animals; ticks remain infected through the various moults and transmit virus to humans by feeding as adult ticks

INCUBATION PERIOD: Usually 4-5 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person to person, except by transfusion; ticks remain infective for life; virus is present in blood in humans during the course of fever, from 2-16 weeks or more after onset

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Small mammals, ground squirrels, chipmunk, porcupine

ZOONOSIS: Yes, through bite of an infected tick

VECTORS: Tick - Dermacentor andersoni

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: N/A

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by heat (50-60°C for at least 30 min)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Does not survive outside of host

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Serological studies or isolation of virus from blood

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: No specific treatment

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 16 reported laboratory-acquired infections

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood, CSF, other tissues; arthropods, depending on the stage of infection

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation, contact of the virus with broken skin or mucous membranes, bites of infected laboratory rodents or arthropods; infectious aerosols may also be a potential source of infection

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, safety equipment and facilities are recommended for activities with potentially infectious clinical materials and arthropods and for manipulations of infected tissue cultures, embryonated eggs, and rodents

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves and gown when working with infectious materials

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time before clean up (30 min)

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: January 2000

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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