Clostridium spp. (with the exception of those species listed above)

Clostridium spp.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Clostridium spp. (C. histolyticum, C. butyricum, C. septicum, C. sordellii, C. novyi, C. ramosum, C.bifermentans, C. paraperfringes, C. cadaveris, C. clostridiiforme, C. innocuum, C. limosum, C. paraputrificum, C. sporogenes, C. subterminale, C. tertium)

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: N/A

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram positive rod usually with subterminal spores; anaerobic

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Involved with gas gangrene of wounds; C. septicum - bacteremia and infections associated with malignancy; C. butyricum - necrotizing enterocolitis in infants; opportunistic pathogen

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide, especially in areas where contact with contaminated soil is likely

HOST RANGE: Humans, animals

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Introduced through a wound contaminated with soil

INCUBATION PERIOD: Usually 1-3 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person to person

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Intestine of animals including humans; soil; animal feces

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Susceptible to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Sporeformers are fairly resistant; moderate susceptibility to 1% sodium hypochlorite; susceptible to glutaraldehyde (prolonged contact time)

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sporeformers are fairly resistant to heat (spores destroyed by moist heat 121·C for at least 15 min)

SURYIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Spores survive for long periods outside host

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Puncture wounds should be observed for abscess formations, gas in tissue

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Drainage of abcesses, removal of necrotic tissue, antibiotic therapy

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: None

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Rarely reported; 6 cases for Clostridium spp.

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Clinical specimens - wound exudates

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Injuries from contaminated sharp instruments

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Direct contact with open cuts and lesions of the skin

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities involving clinical specimens and cultures

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable or when there is evidence of cuts on hands

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wear protective clothing; gently cover spill with paper towels and apply a suitable disinfectant (high level, or 1% sodium hypochlorite), starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: September 1996 Prepared by: Office of Biosafety

LCDC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

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