Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Clostridium perfringens

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: C. welchii, enteritis necroticans

CHARACTERISTICS : Gram positive fat short rods, non-motile, anaerobic spores seldom observed, type A2 produces an enterotoxin

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Food poisoning (Type A); intestinal disorder characterized by sudden onset of colic followed by diarrhea, nausea, but vomiting and fever is usually absent; mild, short in duration and rarely fatal; type C strains cause necrotizing enteritis; Type A strains can also cause wound contamination; traumatic or nontraumatic myonecrosis (gas gangrene); clostridial cellulitis, intra-abdominal sepsis, gangrenous cholecystitis

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Widespread and relatively frequent in countries with cooking practices that favour multiplication of Clostridia

HOST RANGE: Humans and animals

INFECTIOUS DOSE: 105 organisms/g food

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Ingestion of food contaminated by soil or feces, held under conditions which permit multiplication of the organism (inadequately cooked or reheated meats)

INCUBATION PERIOD: From 6-24 hours; usually 10-12 hours

COMMUNICABILITY: Not directly transmitted from person to person

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Soil; gastrointestinal tract of healthy persons and animals (cattle, pigs, poultry and fish)

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Penicillin is generally the first line choice.

DRUG RESISTANCE: Resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole and clindamycin has been reported.

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Sporeformers are fairly resistant; moderate susceptibility to l% sodium hypochlorite; susceptible to high level disinfectants (glutaraldehyde) with prolonged contact time

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sporeformers are fairly resistant to heat; spores survive normal cooking temperatures but are destroyed by moist heat (121°C for at least 15 min)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Meat - 330 days; spores survive for long periods in soil

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; detection of organism and/or enterotoxin in stool

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Fluid replacement and alleviate cramping abdominal pain

IMMUNIZATION: None available

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Rarely reported; 6 cases for Clostridium spp.

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Clinical specimens - wound exudates, feces

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Accidental parenteral inoculation, ingestion

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities involving clinical specimens and cultures

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene and frequent handwashing

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wear protective clothing; gently cover spill with paper towels and apply a suitable disinfectant (high level, or 1% sodium hypochlorite), starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: January 2000, revised July 2003

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

This MSDS / PSDS document, provided by Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), is offered here as a FREE public service to visitors of MSDSonline. As outlined in this site’s Terms of Use, MSDSonline is not responsible for the accuracy, content or any aspect of the information contained therein.