Citrobacter spp.

Citrobacter spp.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Citrobacter spp.

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: C. freundii, C. diversus (C. koseri), C. amalonaticus, C. intermedius, Escherichia intermedia, Escherichia freundii

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram negative rod, facultatively anaerobic, motile, use citrate as sole carbon source

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Opportunistic pathogen, associated with nosocomial infections; causes diarrhea and secondary infections in immunocompromised patients and occasionally severe primary septicemia; C. koseri is associated with meningitis in infants <2 months old

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide

HOST RANGE: Animals, humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Fecal-oral transmission; contaminated food; person to person spread; mother to child

INCUBATION PERIOD: Not known

COMMUNICABILITY: As long as organism is shed in feces

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Water, sewage, foodstuffs, intestinal tract of humans and animals

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and colistin

DRUG RESISTANCE: Antimicrobial resistance is becoming more and more widespread

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, iodines, phenolics, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121°C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170°C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives well in water; can survive for a few hours on dry surfaces

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: None

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Administer antibiotic therapy, fluid replacement

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: Not usually administered

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: No reported cases to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Feces, urine, blood

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion, accidental parenteral inoculation

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Well designed laboratory with good microbiological practices; this level of containment does not allow for any additional risk that may present for those persons with pre-existing disease, compromised immunity or who are pregnant

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene and frequent handwashing

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: January 2000

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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