Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus subsp. jejuni

Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus subsp. jejuni

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus subsp. jejuni

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Campylobacter enteritis, Vibrionic enteritis, Traveller's diarrhea

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram negative spiral and S-shaped bacteria; darting motility; microaerophilic; will grow only under reduced oxygen tension; optimal growth temperature is at 42C

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Acute enteric disease of variable severity; diarrhea, abdominal pain, malaise, fever, nausea and vomiting; prolonged illness in up to 20% of patients; blood in association with mucus and WCBs present in liquid of foul smelling stools; typhoidal-like syndrome, reactive arthritis may occur ; rare cases of febrile convulsions, Guillain-Barré syndrome and meningitis

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Important cause of diarrheal illness worldwide in all age groups (5-14% of diarrhea in world); common source outbreaks most often associated with foods, unpasteurized milk and unchlorinated water; largest number of sporadic cases in temperate climates occur in warmer months

HOST RANGE: Humans, animals and birds

INFECTIOUS DOSE: 500 organisms or less (by ingestion)

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: By ingestion of organisms in undercooked food or in unpasteurized milk or water; from contact with infected pets (puppies and kittens), farm animals or infected infants; possibly from cross-contamination from these sources to foods eaten uncooked or poorly refrigerated

INCUBATION PERIOD: 2-5 days, with a range of 1-10 days; dose-dependent

COMMUNICABILITY: Communicable throughout course of infection; individuals not treated with antibiotics excrete organisms for as long as 2-7 weeks; chronic carrier state is unusual

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Animals - swine, cattle, sheep, cats, dogs, other pets and rodents; birds, including poultry

ZOONOSIS: Yes - chronic carrier state established and animals constitute primary source of infection

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to erythromycin, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides

DRUG RESISTANCE: Single- and multiple-drug resistant strains have been reported

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, 2% glutaraldehyde, iodines, phenolics, formaldehyde; commonly used disinfectants for drinking water treatment (0.1 mg/l of free chlorine, and 1 mg/l of monochloramine) are sufficient to kill C. jejuni

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to moist heat (121°C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170°C for at least 1 hour); highly sensitive to gamma irradiation and UV radiation

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Will survive in moist environments (including droplets), especially at lower temperatures, but cannot tolerate drying; Feces - up to 9 days; milk - 3 days; glass slides - 24 hours; water - 2 to 5 days

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirmation by isolation from stool

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Rehydration and electrolyte replacement; short antibiotic course for severe or prolonged illness

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: Not usually administered

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 2 reported cases of laboratory-acquired infection

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Feces, blood

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion, parenteral inoculation

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Infected laboratory animals

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for activities with clinical materials known or potentially infected and cultures; animals biosafety level 2 facilities and practices

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when contact with infected materials is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Good personal hygiene and frequent handwashing

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: November 1999

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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