Bordetella pertussis

Bordetella pertussis

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Bordetella pertussis

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Whooping cough, B. parapertussis

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram-negative coccobacilli, aerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, produces a toxin; B. pertussis has fastidious growth requirements while B. parapertussis grows on simple culture media

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: An acute respiratory disease with three stages: a catarrhal stage with an irritating cough, lasts 1 to 2 weeks; a paroxysmal stage characterized by violent coughs followed by a high pitched inspiratory whoop, lasts 2 to 6 weeks; a convalescent stage where the cough gradually decreases in frequency and severity, lasts several weeks; 75% of deaths are among infants; parapertussis is similar but milder, occurs in school-age children and is seen less frequently

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Common in children worldwide; decline in incidence and mortality following immunization and where good nutrition and medical care are available; in unimmunized populations with malnutrition and multiple infections, pertussis is among the most lethal infant diseases

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Primarily by direct contact with discharges from respiratory mucous membranes of infected persons by the airborne route, probably by droplets; frequently brought home by an older sibling

INCUBATION PERIOD: Commonly 6 to 20 days; average 7 to 10 days

COMMUNICABILITY: Highly communicable in the early catarrhal stage; becomes negligible in about 3 weeks despite persisting spasmodic cough with whoop; when treated with antibiotics, the period of infectiousness extends only 5-7 days after onset of therapy

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Infected persons; asymptomatic carriers (both children and adults)

ZOONOSIS: None

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to erythromycin or TMP-SMX (susceptible to ciprofloxacin in vitro)

DRUG RESISTANCE: Two erythromycin-resistant isolates of B. pertussis have been reported in Utah and Arizona

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, iodines, phenolics, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by moist heat (121°C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170°C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives 1-2 hours on surfaces; 3-4 hours in human sputum samples; air - 19 to 20 hours; plastic - 3-5 days; paper - 1 day; in diluted saliva - up to 7 days; susceptible to cold temperatures and dessication

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirmation by recovery of organism from nasopharyngeal swabs during catarrhal stage

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Antibiotic therapy - 14 day course of erythromycin or TMP-SMX; adequate oxygenation, hydration and electrolyte balance

IMMUNIZATION: Whole cell adsorbed vaccine available; recommended for children at 2 months of age, boosted at 2 and 5 years; acellular engineered fraction vaccines licensed for booster vaccination

PROPHYLAXIS: Close contacts less than 7 years who have not received required DTP doses should be given a DTP dose; 18-day erythromycin or TMP-SMX course for close contacts less than 1 year old, regardless of immunization status, and for unimmunized contacts less than 7 years

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Rare source of infections; one case in a worker who had aerated liquid cultures for vaccine preparation; possible infection in 8 people who worked in building where research on vaccine was being done (organism was recovered); similar incident reported in a large university research facility which resulted in 2 possible infections

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and secretions

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Direct contact of mucous membranes and inhalation of infectious aerosols and droplets

SPECIAL HAZARDS: No special hazards

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices, containment equipment and facilities for work with known or potentially infectious specimens and cultures; work likely to generate aerosols should be carried out in a biosafety cabinet

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable; gloves and gown (tie in back, tight wrists) should be worn while conducting procedures in biosafety cabinet

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Hands should be washed thoroughly after work is finished to avoid possible spreading of the organisms

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are labelled appropriately

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: November 1999

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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