Blastomyces dermatitidis

Blastomyces dermatitidis

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Blastomyces dermatitidis

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Blastomycosis, Gilchrist's disease

CHARACTERISTICS: Dimorphic fungus; yeast stage (characteristic broad based budding form) in tissues and in enriched culture media at 37°C; mold stage with branching hyphae and ovoid conidia at room temperature

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Granulomatous mycosis, primarily of the lungs (acute or chronic) or skin; indolent onset evolving into chronic pulmonary infection more common; skin lesions most commonly located on face and distal extremities; untreated disseminated or chronic pulmonary blastomycosis usually results in death

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Uncommon; occurs sporadically in central and southern eastern USA, Canada, Africa, India, Israel and Saudi Arabia; rare in children; more frequent in males than in females

HOST RANGE: Humans, dogs; also reported in cats, a horse, captive lion and sea lion

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Inhalation of dust laden with conidia of mold or saprophytic growth form

INCUBATION PERIOD: Indefinite; probably a few weeks or less to months

COMMUNICABILITY: Not transmitted directly from person to person or from animals to people

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Moist soil and decomposing organic material

ZOONOSIS: Not transmitted from animals to humans

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to amphotericin B, itraconazole

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, phenolics, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, 10% formalin; susceptibility to 70% ethanol questionable

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Inactivated by moist heat (121°C for 15 min)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Spores are resistant and may survive for long periods in soil and dust

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by microscopic examination of sputum and material from lesions

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Treatment with amphotericin B and/or itraconazole, ketoconazole

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: None

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 11 reported cases with 2 deaths - following accidental parenteral inoculation with infected tissue or cultures containing yeast forms, pulmonary infection following inhalation of conidia and subsequent development of osteolytic lesion

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Yeast forms may be present in tissues of infected animals and in clinical specimens; mold form cultures

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Parenteral inoculation of yeast forms; inhalation of infectious conidia from mold forms

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Soil and other environmental materials may contain infectious conidia

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 3 practices, containment equipment and facilities for processing mold cultures, soil and other materials known or likely to contain infectious conidia

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves and gown with tight wrists and ties in back when working with the agent

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Appropriate precautions and practices to minimize the production of infectious aerosols

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: November 1999

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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