Ancylostoma duodenale

Ancylostoma duodenale (and Ancylostoma caninum)

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Ancylostoma duodenale (and Ancylostoma caninum)

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Hookworm disease, ancylostomiasis, ground itch

CHARACTERISTICS: Intestinal nematode; adult hookworms are small cylindrical and creamy-white; males measure 8-11 mm in length and 0.45 mm width, females are 10-13 mm long, 0.60 mm wide; eggs are 50-60 µm long and 35-40 µm wide; head continues in same direction as curvature of body

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Clinical features correspond mainly to the intensity of infection; heavy infection leads to development of iron deficiency, hypochromic, microcytic anemia; cardiac complications may occur; children with heavy, long-term infection can develop hypoproteinemia; severe acute pulmonary and GI reaction can occasionally result following exposure to infective larvae

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide distribution; widely endemic in tropical and subtropical countries where improper disposal of human faeces is practiced; common in north Africa, northern India, northern parts of the Far East and the Andean region of South America

HOST RANGE: Humans

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Orally or percutaneously (transmitted by fecal contamination of the soil - infective larvae penetrate the skin, usually the foot)

INCUBATION PERIOD: Varies from a few weeks to many months; depends on infectious load

COMMUNICABILITY: Not known

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Humans, dogs

ZOONOSIS: Dogs (A. caninum)

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Sensitive to albendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, bephenium hydroxynphthoate

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1 % sodium hypochorite, 2% glutaraldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Larvae sensitive to desiccation and freezing

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Can survive weeks to several months in warm, damp soil; temperatures from 26.7-32.2°C are optimal for larval development

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by microscopic demonstration of eggs in stools

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Administer appropriate drug therapy, iron supplements if anemia severe

IMMUNIZATION: Vaccine(s) in development

PROPHYLAXIS: None available

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: None reported to date

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Faeces

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion; droplet exposure of the mucous membranes; accidental inoculation

SPECIAL HAZARDS: None

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment equipment for all activities involving infective stages of the parasite, infectious or potentially infectious body fluids or tissues

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin contact with infectious material is unavoidable

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing, gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: November 1999

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001

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