Adenovirus (types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7)

Adenovirus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES 

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT 

NAME: Adenovirus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: ARD, acute respiratory disease, pharyngoconjunctival fever 

CHARACTERISTICS: Adenoviridae; non-enveloped, icosahedral virions, 70-90 nm diameter, doubled-stranded, linear DNA genome. 

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD 

PATHOGENICITY: Varies in clinical manifestation and severity; symptoms include fever, rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, cough and conjunctivitis; common cause of nonstreptococcal exudative pharyngitis among children under 3 years; more severe diseases include laryngitis, croup, bronchiolitis, or severe pneumonia; a syndrome of pharyngitis and conjunctivitis (pharyngoconjunctival fever) is associated with adenovirus infection 

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide; seasonal in temperate regions, with highest incidences in the fall, winter and early spring; in tropical areas, infections are common in the wet and colder weather; annual incidence is particularly high in children; adenovirus types 4 and 7 are common among military recruits (ARD) 

HOST RANGE: Humans 

INFECTIOUS DOSE: >150 plaque forming units when given intranasally 

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Directly by oral contact and droplet spread; indirectly by handkerchiefs, eating utensils and other articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharge of an infected person; outbreaks have been related to swimming pools; possible spread through the fecal-oral route 

INCUBATION PERIOD: From 1-10 days 

COMMUNICABILITY: Shortly prior to and for the duration of the active disease 

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION 

RESERVOIR: Humans 

ZOONOSIS: None 

VECTORS: None 

SECTION IV - VIABILITY 

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antiviral available; cidofovir has shown promise in the treatment of adenoviral ocular infections. 

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, 0.25% sodium dodecyl sulfate 

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Sensitive to heat>56°C; unusually stable to chemical or physical agents and adverse pH conditions 

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Resistance to chemical and physical agents allows for prolonged survival outside of the body. Adenovirus type 3 survived up to 10 days on paper under ambient conditions; adenovirus type 2 survived from 3-8 weeks on environmental surfaces at room temperature 

SECTION V - MEDICAL 

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by serological analysis 

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Mainly supportive therapy 

IMMUNIZATION: Vaccine available for adenovirus types 4 and 7 (used for military recruits) 

PROPHYLAXIS: None available 

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS 

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Ten cases documented up to 1988 

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Respiratory secretions 

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Ingestion; droplet exposure of the mucous membrane 

SPECIAL HAZARDS: Contact with feces from infected animals 

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS 

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment facilities for all activities involving the virus and potentially infectious body fluids or tissues 

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin contact with infectious materials is unavoidable 

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: None 

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION 

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective clothing gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) before clean up 

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate all wastes before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection 

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled 

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 

Date prepared: November 1999 

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC 

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date. 

Copyright © Health Canada, 2001 

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